What is Surveying?

Surveying is the process of analyzing and recording the characteristics of a land area span to help design a plan or map for construction.

Total Station is the currently preferred Surveying equipment in the industry. Find out What is a Total Station? here and about Survey camp using Total Station workshop here.

Categories of Surveying are:

  • Geodetic Surveying:

    Surveys are carried out on a large scale with the help of control networks spanning over long distances.
  • Cadastral Surveying:

    Surveys are carried out to define land ownership and boundaries.
  • Topographical Surveying:

    Surveys are carried out to determine land structure along with variation in land heights.
  • As Built Surveying:

    Surveys are carried out after completion of a construction project to check variance from proposed design.
  • Photogrammetry (Aerial Surveying):

    Surveys are carried out by taking photographs from elevated ground stations.
  • LiDAR (Aerial Surveying):

    Surveys are carried out using remote sensors and light reflected by lasers to measure distances.
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Fundamental techniques used for Surveying are:

  • Triangulation:

    In this technique numerous triangles are inter-connected and overlapped to measure angles from a surveying station.
  • Trilateration:

    It follows the same technique as in Triangulation with additional use of Electronic Distance Meter (EDM).
  • Traverse:

    In this technique multiple lines of pre-measured lengths are inter-connected to measure angles and distances.
  • Leveling:

    In this technique the difference in heights in a terrain are measured with the help of graduated rods.
  • Radiation:

    In this technique radiating lines are drawn from a focal point to defined boundaries converted to a small scale surveying sheet.

Surveying finds multiple industrial applications across various domains. It is an integral part of Civil Engineering Discipline.